We are committed to the ongoing Training and Development of our staff. This is based on the well accepted 70:20:10 principle where 70% of learning comes from on-the-job experience, 20% from learning through others and 10 % from formal training. With respect to the 10% formal training all our operations have in place a range of internal and external training programmes including technical, management, customer and language skills. The success of our staff development is directly reflected in our high rates of internal promotion and the fact that the majority of senior vacancies are filled through our internal succession plan rather than external recruitment.
Some examples of our formal development programmes are listed below. These courses included technical skills, language training and management skills.At the Group level, we organise staff development programmes and work with leading international business schools, including the Richard Ivey Business School in Hong Kong and IMD in Switzerland.At the same time, we recognise that the greater part of individual development comes from stretching on-the-job experiences. This includes international movement in some cases, which also helps us leverage our skills across the Group.
In addition, our established apprenticeship and graduate trainee programme in Hong Kong illustrates our commitment. Many of our graduates are now in senior management positions.In 2018, total training man hours amounted to an average of 46.1 hours per employee across the Group.